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The Causes and Effects of Child Marriage

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“If I only knew what I know now, I never would have settled into marriage. I cannot remember the last time I smiled with joy. My life is clouded with fear, anger, depression, and uncertainty. I don’t know where to turn to for hope, so I’m left here, sitting, hoping for the best, that I’m sure will never come to pass,” Mambo tells me with deep regret.

She was only 13 when her parents married her off to an 18-year-old boy from the neighboring community. From where she comes from, girls should not stay with their parents for long. They belong with their husbands.

Her story is typical of what girls her age go through in the Sub-Saharan Africa, and South Asia. Statistics show that 1 in 4 girls marry before age 18. African countries account for 17 of 20 nations with the highest rates of child marriage in the world. For example, about 55% of girls in West and Central Africa, 60% in sub-Saharan Africa and 45% in Eastern and Southern Africa marry before they are 18. In South Asia, about 1 in 3 girls marry before age 18.

This is nothing to sneeze at; and if nothing happens to prevent early marriages, the numbers will double by 2050.

ALSO READ: The Struggles of Pregnant Women in the Marginalized Communities of Africa

You may wonder why children turn into brides. Here are some common causes of child marriage:

  • Dowry – In African communities, grooms have to pay the bride price before they get the girl, while in Asia, it is just the opposite – girls have to pay the price. Families that live in poverty view this as a chance to get a considerable amount of money. In Africa, some parents will marry off the girl so they can raise the school fees for their boys. In Asia, a younger girl costs less than an older one, so it is advantageous to marry them off soon.
  • Family honor – For most families, it is a great honor to marry off a virgin daughter. Parents fear their girls will indulge in sex if they stay longer at home. So, they prefer that she settles with her husband before she thinks about messing up.
  • The notion that girls do not hold value – In places like Burundi, girls are only valuable because they can produce babies.
  • Men make decisions alone – They decide what is best for their children, and the rest follow suit. When a man says she’s going to be married, that is what will happen.
  • Lack of choice for girls – In many societies, marriage is the only way for a girl to support herself and also earn the social respect. It is seen as the only way to secure her future.
  • Peer pressure – Some parents marry off their children to please the neighbors or their religious leaders. Some do it because they believe it is the right way to behave.

 

ALSO READ Why More Women Live in Poverty in the Developing World

Effects of Early Child Marriage

While there are national laws and international agreements to end this harmful practice, early child marriage is still prevalent and affects millions of people around the globe.

Child marriage is a violation of human rights.

Girls, who marry young fail to enjoy optimal health, obtain an education, bond with their peers, and even choose their life partners.

  1. Psychological effects

53% of women who marry before age 18 report having had depression at some point in life, which is 4% more than women who marry later on. They also are more likely to suffer from specific phobias than their counterparts (36% vs. 28%). The mental health effects tend to vary with the number of children a woman has along with other social variables.

  1. Health effects

Child marriage exposes the girl to more risk for STIs, cervical cancer, obstetric fistulas, death during childbirth and malaria. They also face the risk of premature birth.

opinion

How does a child who knows nothing about the world raise another child, into a responsible adult?

Ending child marriage

There is not a fast and hard solution to end child marriage in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and other parts of the world. However, if we ensure that all girls have access to decent education, then that will be a step in the right direction.

It is also important for religious and community leaders to understand their role in the fight against child marriage. They have the power to change how people view these practices. The best approach is to empower such leaders with the right information, which they can pass on to their societies.

Since child marriage is a deep-rooted practice that has been going on for generations, we should jointly work with families and communities to raise awareness of the harmful effects of child marriage. This will help shift how they view the practice.

Above all else, countries should establish and implement laws and policies around child marriage. Strong policy and legal system can offer a vital backdrop for changes in social norms, improvement in services and girls’ empowerment.

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Women

The Plight of African Women Migrating to Europe

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“From what I hear, there are plenty of job opportunities in Europe. I believe when I get there, my life will be better,” a Congo migrant.

Thousands of African women risk their lives as they go on a boat journey to Europe in search of what they imagine would be a better and easier living. Many begin the journey with much hope, but sadly end up in despair.

In an interview with one woman migrant who left the Congo with hopes of getting to Europe, one of our crewmembers asked about the trip. Here’s what she had to say:

“That trip was hard and easy at the same time. We started our journey from Congo, and we went through to Cameron, where we stayed for two days. Then we left for Nigeria and spent only a single night there. We proceeded to Niger and then to Libya. I had to work in Libya to get the money to go on with the trip.”

Also read: Workplace Challenges Women Face in the Developing World

We asked, “How did you find your way to the boat and the smugglers?

“There was a black guy in Tripoli who asked people whether they had the money. When I asked him how much I needed to pay for the journey, he told me $1,000. I worked for a few days and managed to raise three-quarters of that amount, which he accepted. We were hidden somewhere in a bush without food– only some biscuits and a little water. We weren’t allowed to speak. In total, we stayed there for five days. On the fifth night, at around 9 PM, the guys came and told us we were leaving. The journey to the seaside took about two hours on foot.” She says.

We asked, “How did you feel when the boat took off?

“I have never been happier in my life,” she says smiling.

We asked, “Are all of you traveling for the same thing, and if so, what is it?”

“Yeah, most of us, if not all, are traveling to get a better life. We believe that the developed countries like America and Europe flow of honey and milk. Even when you lack shelter, once you are there, life is just good.”

We asked, “And do you believe that?”

“Of course I do believe that. Once I’m in Italy, my quality of life is going to improve,” she concludes.

The shocking reality

Migrant women are on the move for various reasons – to escape conflict, poverty, and devastation within their community or country, to join their loved ones, to further their education, and even to get better opportunities and livelihoods.

Unfortunately, most women migrants go through hell. In our interview with over 100 women, nearly 50% said they had been victims of abuse or rape during their journey. They say they were treated like chickens; they were beaten and denied food and water.

It is true that these women make a conscious decision to trust the smugglers with their lives – because they pay to be able to get across a country that they are not allowed to get across legally. However, they do not sign up for abuse and torture.

Women migrants rely on the smugglers to get overseas, often under a “pay first system” which leaves them vulnerable to trafficking, exploitation, and violence including rape and prostitution.

Also read: If Not You, Who Will End Violence against Women in the Sub-Saharan Countries?

People traffickers demand hundreds to thousands of dollars from migrants to take them across the desert before packing them onto inappropriate boats for the journey across the Mediterranean Sea.

How can we stop women trafficking?

Trafficking is a complex issue that needs a multifaceted approach. What makes it so tricky is the aspect of willing buyer, willing seller. Even so, there is still much that can be done. For instance, both NGOs and government programs can identify the women who are at risk and offer them adequate tools that they require to find work overseas without exposing themselves at risk.

Government and NGO programs should also take short and long-term measures to address trafficking. Short-term approaches include raising awareness and education, while long-term actions include improving the socioeconomic position of vulnerable women and lobbying efforts for reforms on the national laws.

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Women

How Lack of Sanitary Pads Affects the African Girl-Child

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In Sub-Saharan Africa, about 65% of girls and women lack access to sanitary towels. Most of them resort to shocking alternatives like using goatskin, chicken feathers, soil, leaves, cups, pieces of cloth, and even ashes to hold the periods.

The onset of menstrual periods should be a joyous moment for any girl because it is a transition into womanhood. However, for some African girls, the process is dreaded, because many of them cannot afford to buy sanitary pads. For them, the menstrual cycle comes with frustrations, embarrassments, fear of stigma, anxiety, and stress.

“In Africa, many families survive with a dollar or less every day. It is impossible for a family to spare $0.50 for a sanitary pad when they don’t even have enough for one meal,” says Wakasa, a Human Rights Activist in Nigeria.

ALSO Read: The Struggles of Pregnant Women in the Marginalized Communities of Africa

The alternatives

Since these girls and women lack the money to buy sanitary pads, they resort to using other methods to prevent leaking, and staining their clothes; they use:

  • Chicken feathers
  • Goatskin
  • Tissue paper
  • Exercise books
  • Cotton wool
  • Maize cobs
  • Cow dung
  • Cups
  • Soil
  • Ash
  • Leaves
  • Old clothes
  • Old mattresses

While these ad hoc alternatives come in handy, they present a range of health and psychological effects.

Health effects

According to Dr. Lagat, a Gynecologist at the Nairobi Women Hospital, unhygienic practices are the leading cause of severe reproductive tract infections and even cervical cancer among these women.

She says, “When a woman uses goatskin or old clothes to stem the bleeding, she exposes her uterus or urinary tract to bacteria from outside, which makes them prone to infection. But when they use sanitary pads, the risk is reduced.”

Psychological effects

In another context, the fear of leaks, cultural stigma, lack of menstrual materials, and lack of knowledge can put too much pressure on the girls. Some African communities believe that periods only come after a girl loses her virginity.

Lack of sanitary materials also paralyzes the day-to-day activities, because women are forced to stay at home.

“I use scraps of fabric and cotton because sanitary towels are too expensive,” says Nafula, a 19-year-old Kawangware resident. “They sting, they burn, and they irritate my skin. But what’s worse is they leak and soil my clothes. During my periods, I cannot walk around, or carry on with my daily duties because I fear that people will see the blood stain on my clothes, so I seat at home.”

ALSO READ:Workplace Challenges Women Face in the Developing World

Impacts on education

Studies show that many girls in Africa miss about three to five days of school every month during their menstruation periods due to lack of sanitary pads. Often, they feel unclean, uncomfortable, and even embarrassed to stay in school. The discomfort and the fear of leakage also cause some to lose concentration in class.

For others, the problem is as basic as lack of access to toilets. In most parts of Africa, there’s only one toilet for every 300+ students.

The monthly absenteeism makes it difficult for the girls to keep up with the syllabus, let alone compete with their male classmates, so they remain a step behind throughout their education. Some will even choose to drop out of school to avoid the pressures altogether.

“I got my first period while I was in class. Unfortunately, a boy who was sitting behind me shouted that I had blood on my dress. It was terrifying because no one had told me that at some point, I’m going to have periods,” narrates Maya, a 14-year-old girl. “Everyone started calling me ‘the immoral girl’, and after months of struggling with self-esteem issues, I chose to drop out of school.”

What needs to be done?

Having monthly periods shouldn’t be shameful or a cause for health problems. It also shouldn’t hinder the women from empowerment or education. It’s therefore vital for policymakers to ensure that all school-going girls have access to sanitary ware.

Furthermore, school curriculum should include information about the biological processes to demystify all issues around the sexual and reproductive health to benefit students.

If male and female contraceptives are accessible free of charge in all public hospitals, the same should be for sanitary pads. After all, contraceptive use is optional; sanitary ware isn’t.

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Women

Why African Nations Have Fewer Women in Political Positions

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“When the going gets tough, the man gets going,” Research and Advocacy Unit (RAU)

Despite the world’s progress towards gender equality, African women continue to be marginalized across many spheres of society, particularly in leadership positions.

A UN women study revealed that:

As of June 2016, only 22.8% of all members of parliament were women, which is a slow increment from 11.3% in 1995.

Rwanda is the only country in the globe with the highest number of elected women, representing 63.8% of the country’s lower house.

Globally, the representation of women (in the upper, lower and single houses combined)  as of June 2017 was 41.7% in the Nordic countries, 28.1% in Americas, 25.3% in Europe, 23.6 % in Sub-Saharan Africa, 19.4% in Asia, 17.4% in Arab States and 17.4 in the Pacific.

Gender equity in decision-making and political participation is a globally agreed goal, placed by the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. But from the look of things, we still have a long way to go.

In a bid to uncover the reasons why women remain underrepresented in the political arena, we interviewed 30 women from different socio-economic backgrounds, and these were the results.

Lack of support

75% of the women from the interview cited lack of support from fellow women as the leading cause of underrepresentation. If a woman is battling it out with a man, most women will prefer to elect the man, not because the woman is incapable, but because of the insecurities that other women have in electing their own kind.

Women are their own enemies – when one rises to the top, others begin to see her as competition, and since they find it hard to match the status, they will mudsling, or even pull her down.

Culture

Culture finds its way in almost everything in Africa, and politics is no exception. It is tradition for a woman to leave their home once she is married.

Now, in the African politics, it is impossible for the woman to go back to their village and compete for a political seat, reason being, she is already married and doesn’t belong there. But then again, it is also extremely difficult for her to vie for a seat in her husband’s village because she is not of their clan or tribe. So unless the woman leaves in a cosmopolitan area, she might as well forget about her political ambitions.

About 98% of women in our interview cited this as the biggest challenge.

ALSO READ: The Causes and Effects of Child Marriage

Sexism

In Africa, highly qualified women in the political sphere are not judged by their extensive resumes or merits alone, instead, they are held to damaging double standards.

80% of the women in our interview agreed that a man who graduates from a prestigious university and thrives in his career is very well celebrated, but a woman with the same accomplishment is treated with suspicion. They even went further to say people will claim that the woman“slept” her way to the top.

In the African politics, male competitors also use a certain language and say things that paint the woman in bad light. For a woman to thrive, she has to develop a tough skin in game, otherwise, she might easily be crushed by the words from their male counterparts, as well as the masses.

Violence

In the developed countries, political rallies and engagements are often well coordinated, in Africa, that’s just the opposite. There’s always much of pushing and pulling, and sometimes, fists throwing. There are also cases where the male politicians hire goons to scare the women away.

A Research and Advocacy Unit (RAU) interview around violence and politics in Zimbabwe established that over 50% of women in politics experienced some form of violence, with 14% of them stating that they had been hurt physically. This is only a representation of all the cases – women in politics suffer physical and emotional abuse, but most cases go unnoticed since the women fail to speak for the fear of stigmatization.

ALSO READ:If Not You, Who Will End Violence against Women in the Sub-Saharan Countries?

Resources

It is difficult for a woman to unseat a sitting politician for the above-mentioned reasons, but perhaps the main reason is that they lack the financial muscles to do so.

According to the women in our interview, African politics involves much of bribing and buying the masses. One also needs to buy the campaign materials, and hire transportation, PA systems, venues and more. All these require money, which is something that most aspiring politicians don’t have.

Party politics

The national political parties often select a significant number of their candidates, years before the next general elections. They weigh their options to see which candidate is most likely to scoop the seat and support them.

Unfortunately, they can easily overlook a woman with great potential just because of the fear of losing that particular seat. Left out in the cold, most women end up running as independent candidates – which is tougher because of the limited resources.

In conclusion

Despite the argument of whether or not a greater representation of women in politics will effect change, most will agree that including women in the country’s political system is integral. However, women in Sub-Saharan countries face numerous barriers in joining politics, and thriving in the field even when elected.

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